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The issue of women entering stadiums from the point of view of jurisprudence and law

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The women entering stadiums is a category that, along with the progress of the age of communication and the development of new technologies, as well as the ever-increasing expansion of international interactions and social communication, is one of the emerging demands that has been the subject of discussion and comments by many experts and officials in recent years. has taken. Various factors have joined hands so that this problem, which could be easily solved, became the subject of many political-social and intellectual circles and gradually turned into a problem.

In the distant years, many senior officials and state officials were fundamentally opposed to this issue and tried to erase the issue instead of solving it; But in recent years, the pressure of international institutions such as FIFA on the government to recognize this right for women has led to efforts to solve this problem; The result of those efforts has been the compilation of some guidelines, the formation of several think tanks, the publication of jurisprudential-legal research books regarding the women entering stadiums. In this article, we are trying to briefly address the arguments and reasons of the supporters and opponents of this issue and choose the point of view that seems more logical.

Opinions, reasons and documents of opponents of women entering stadiums

Opponents, citing some Sharia sources such as the Quran and traditions, believe that women should not be allowed to enter stadiums. Their documents include:

  • Quran

This group believes that verses 33 and 53 of Surah al-Ahzab clearly state that women are forbidden to leave the house; unless necessary

This is despite the fact that the mentioned verses were specifically issued about the wives of the Prophet; Not all women. On the other hand, this ruling has been issued in accordance with the social and cultural situation of the society of the Prophet’s (PBUH) era, which is not comparable to the conditions of today’s society. On the other hand, it should be mentioned that protection and care of women is desirable and desirable; But this is completely different from the category of banning women from leaving the house.

women entering stadiums

  • Hadiths

To prove their claim, this group also refers to some hadiths whose content is close to the above verses. The narrations in which it is mentioned that it is not permissible for a woman to leave the house except with the permission of her husband or necessity.

Citing these hadiths regarding the topic under discussion, in addition to the weakness of the document they have, has the same problems that we announced under the verses of Surah Al-Ahzab.

In addition to the mentioned two sources of jurisprudence, the opponents also refer to other reasons in order to prove their claim: one of these reasons is the prohibition of mixing men and women. This group believes that the presence of women in stadiums that are full of men causes the mixing of women and men, which is forbidden, and such mixing causes corruption, social damage, and follows western culture.

This is despite the fact that the prohibition of mixing men and women does not have a Quranic basis. On the other hand, the presumption of mixing refers only to the situation where men and women are hand in hand or intermingled. Islam has never recommended complete separation between men and women; Rather, the opinion of Islam is that these connections and mixing should not lead to sexual pleasure or stimulation of sensual powers. Studying the history of Islam also shows that women have always had an active presence in the social arena alongside men. Such a problem has had a historical record in Iran as well.

Another reason cited by this group is that looking at the half-naked bodies of male athletes is a clear example of looking at the impermissible. At the same time, this behavior is in contradiction with female modesty and is an act against modesty. It seems that this reason is not justified due to the large distance between the spectators and the athletes. From that distance, the half-naked body of the athletes is not clear to the viewer.

The last argument of the opponents is that due to the use of wrong words or the appearance of violent behavior in the stadiums (by men), the presence of women in such places is not correct and this is against the sensitive and delicate spirit of women. At the same time, this presence promotes moral corruption and creates disorder. Therefore, since there is also the right to broadcast football on television, it is better for women to follow sports and competitions in the safe environment of their homes and through television.

It seems that this reason also does not seem convincing for issuing a decree banning the presence of women in stadiums. Maybe the tense atmosphere of the stadiums will be softened by the presence of women and will make men dominate their behavior and speech and this will gradually make the atmosphere of the stadiums healthier. Besides, women’s rights cannot be taken away from them because of cultural gaps. Instead of erasing the problem, efforts should be made to create a proper culture in this field.

Opinions, reasons and documents of those in favor of women entering stadiums

This group cites several reasons to prove the natural right of women to enter the stadiums, which will be mentioned below:

  • the right to freedom

Freedom is the natural and basic right of all human beings. This right has a wide scope; To the extent that it can be extended to other areas of human rights, including citizenship rights. Some parts of the Charter of Citizen Rights approved in December 2015 are directly related to the topic under discussion. Articles 89 and 103.

Article 89 of this charter stipulates: “It is the right of all citizens, especially women, to have access to sports and educational facilities and healthy recreation and to be able to participate in national and international sports arenas while preserving Islamic-Iranian culture.”

Article 103 also refers to the category of women’s right to benefit from the public spaces of the city. This article stipulates: “It is the right of all citizens, especially women, to form their own social, cultural and artistic organizations and organizations, while enjoying participation and presence in public spaces and centers.”

Since the rights to benefit from healthy entertainment or to be in various public environments do not conflict with any major issue such as public order, good morals or the principle of the system, it is not permissible to limit them. Banning the presence of women in stadiums is also one of those restrictions that does not seem permissible.

  • The principle of obscenity

The principle of abahah points out that any action that does not have a reason to prohibit it is permissible. In other words, the fact that something is haram must be clearly mentioned in the Shariah. There is no Shariah text or reason stating that the presence of women in stadiums is prohibited or abominable, and also no legal text regarding this type of prohibition has been approved, so it seems that the presence of women in such spaces has no Shariah forms. be legal

  • The principle of justice

Justice is putting everything in its original place. There are different types of justice, such as individual, social, natural, distributive, etc., social justice is considered in this article. Establishing social justice requires that all citizens benefit equally from legitimate facilities and entertainment. In this way, it is hoped that the government will provide the necessary assistance and measures for women to enter the stadiums and provide the necessary infrastructure.

women entering stadiums

  • The protective principles stipulated in the constitution

Iranian laws made every effort to consider the gender characteristics between men and women and the difference in the roles of each of them, in addition to the general rights that they consider for women (the same as men), special rights also create that leads to the growth of women in the society.

These special rights are found in Article 21 of the Constitution. A special right that is related to the subject of the discussion is mentioned in the first paragraph of this principle: “creating favorable conditions for the development of a woman’s personality and the restoration of her material and spiritual rights and…”.

Therefore, it can be claimed that one of the examples of the rights demanded by the women’s community that should be revived is the freedom of women to attend stadiums. After examining all the reasons given by the opponents and supporters, it can be concluded that the reasons given by the group of supporters are more logical and reasonable than the group of opponents.

It seems that considering the undeniable role of women in education and conveying the spirit of happiness to the family and society, not only recognizing their right to attend sports venues and stadiums does not violate the values of Islam; Rather, it will be the foundation of the country’s movement in the path of progress and excellence. The women entering stadiums greatly moderates the restless atmosphere of the stadiums and creates a family and safe atmosphere in the stadiums. As a result of the presence of women and the healthy atmosphere of the stadiums, the presence of other sections of the society such as children, the elderly, educated and academics, and even students and clerics will be possible. Women can attend the stadiums under the condition of adhering to Shari’a and legal standards (such as observing the hijab, not engaging in behavior contrary to the behavior of an Iranian Muslim lady, etc.).

In this regard, it is necessary for the government to use all its capacities and provide software and hardware for the safe presence of women in stadiums. In this regard, all the intellectual, cultural, security, military and law enforcement agencies should join hands to provide the necessary culture and infrastructure for this presence. Obviously, the recognition of this natural right will reduce the pressure of international institutions and will play an effective role in creating appropriate international interactions. Dadista Law Firm is one of the legal firms in Iran that seeks justice based on the Iranian Constitution. This institution is active in all legal, criminal, banking, registration, etc. cases.

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What are the reasons for the supporters of the presence of women in stadiums?
Based on the principle of abaha, the principle of justice, the principles of protection stipulated in the constitution and the right to freedom of individuals, they are in favor of the presence of women in stadiums.
What are the reasons for the opponents of women's presence in stadiums?
According to the Qur'an, the traditions and consideration of the half-naked bodies of male athletes and the use of incorrect words or the occurrence of violent behavior in the stadiums (by men) are among the reasons for some people's opposition to the presence of women in the stadiums.

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